The Empire of Trebizond also gained its reputation for superb diplomacy during this time. Evidence for their Resources, Products, Agriculture, Ownership and Location", As documented by Charitopoulos Evangelos, "Diocese of Cerasous. He sent an envoy to the Council of Florence in 1439, the humanist George Amiroutzes, which resulted in the proclamation of the Union of the Catholic and Orthodox Churches, but this proclamation brought little help. In 1364 he confirmed to the Venetians their old privileges and assigned them a depot. Alexios III Megas Komnenos or Alexius III (Greek: Αλέξιος Γ΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, Alexios III Megas Komnēnos, 5 October 1338 – 20 March 1390), Emperor of Trebizond from December 1349 until his death. This threat was not from the small Turkmen emirates that bordered Trebizond, but from the dynasty of the Osmanli, a new Turkish power emerging from western Anatolia that would soon consolidate the Ottoman Empire. Alexios I Megas Komnenos or Alexius I Megas Comnenus (Greek: Αλέξιος Α΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, romanized: Alexios I Megas Komnēnos; c. 1182 – 1 February 1222) was, with his brother David, the founder of the Empire of Trebizond, which he ruled from 1204 until his death in 1222. [35], Following the death of Alexios II, Trebizond suffered a period of repeated imperial depositions and assassinations, despite a short period of stability under his youngest son Basil (1332–1340). [25], After marching from Georgia, and with the help of their paternal aunt Queen Tamar, Alexios and David occupied Trebizond in April 1204. Nevertheless, Gabras proved himself a worthy guardian by repelling a Georgian attack on Trebizond. 1. Some authorities identify Taronites with the known son of Theodore Gabras. [10][page needed][11][page needed], After the crusaders of the Fourth Crusade overthrew Alexios V and established the Latin Empire, the Empire of Trebizond became one of three Byzantine successor states to claim the imperial throne, alongside the Empire of Nicaea under the Laskaris family and the Despotate of Epirus under a branch of the Angelos family. Trebizond already had a long history of autonomous rule before it became the center of a small empire in the Late Middle Ages. The years 1347–1348 marked the apex of this lawless period. Wikipedia Ostrogorsky, G., Ιστορία του Βυζαντινού κράτους 3 (Athens 1997), pp. The typikon of the Dionysiou is an object of artistic merit and beauty. Emperor of Trebizond from December 1349 until his death. The later Byzantine emperors, as well as Byzantine authors, such as George Pachymeres, Nicephorus Gregoras and to some extent Trapezuntines such as John Lazaropoulos and Basilios Bessarion, regarded the emperors of Trebizond as the "princes of the Lazes", while the possession of these "princes" was also called Lazica,[8] in other words, their state was known as the Principality of the Lazes. [19], The city of Trebizond was the capital of the theme of Chaldia, which according to the 10th century Arab geographer Abul Feda was regarded as being largely a Lazian port. Read Wikipedia in Modernized UI. Alexios III of Trebizond. [16] However, his successors used a version of his title, "Emperor and Autocrat of the entire East, of the Iberians and the Perateia" until the Empire's end in 1461.[17]. Chaldia had already shown its separatist tendencies in the 10th and 11th centuries, when it came under the control of a local leader named Theodore Gabras, who according to Anna Comnenaregarded Trebizond and its hinterlands "as a prize which had fallen to his own lot" and conducted himself as an independent prince. In November 1373, he sailed to Trebizond, where he tried to force the deposition of the Emperor of Trebizond, Alexios III. In 1351 the connection to John VI Kantakouzenos was strengthened by further diplomatic initiatives. Biography. Alexios and his court strengthened their position by fostering peaceful relations with the Turkmen, cemented by marriage alliances such as that between the emperor's sister Maria and Fahreddin Kutlubeg of Aq Qoyunlu. The deposed Emperor Michael was exiled to Constantinople, and on September 20, 1351, Alexios III married Theodora Kantakouzene, a relative of the Byzantine Emperor, in the newly rebuilt Church of St. Eugenios. When Basil died on April 6, 1340 and his first wife Irene Palaiologina succeeded him, she sent all the children of her dead husband to Constantinople together with their mother. Sergey Karpov has identified a lead seal of Alexios, on one side "the image of a strategos in the peaked helmet led by hand by St. George" with the inscriptions Ἀλέξιος ὁ Κομνηνός [Alexios Komnenos] and Ὁ Ἅ(γιος) Γεώργιος [Saint George] on either side; on the obverse is a scene of Ἡ Ἁγία Ἀνάστασις [The Holy Resurrection] with the corresponding inscription. Login with Facebook David intrigued with various European powers for help against the Ottomans, speaking of wild schemes that included the conquest of Jerusalem. Cervantes described the eponymous hero of his Don Quixote as "imagining himself for the valour of his arm already crowned at least Emperor of Trebizond." He was an eldest son of Emperor Alexios II of Trebizond and his… …   Wikipedia, Theodora Kantakouzene, wife of Alexios IV of Trebizond — Theodora Kantakouzene (d. 12 November, 1426) was the Empress consort of Alexios IV of Trebizond.FamilyTheodora and her relations are named in Dell Imperadori Constantinopolitani , a manuscript held in the Vatican Library. He ascended the throne at the age of 14 after the death of his father. Geographically, the Empire of Trebizond consisted of the narrow strip along the southern coast of the Black Sea and the western half of the Pontic Alps, along with the Gazarian Perateia, or southern Crimea (soon losing to Genoese Gazaria and Theodorite Gazaria). [15], The rulers of Trebizond called themselves Megas Komnenos ("Great Comnenus") and – like their counterparts in the other two Byzantine successor states, the Empire of Nicaea and the Despotate of Epirus – initially claimed supremacy as "Emperor and Autocrat of the Romans". [24] While Michel Kurskanskis has argued in support of Vasiliev's interpretation, he disagrees with Vasiliev over the intent of Tamar's intervention: Vasiliev has argued that the Queen intended to create a buffer state to protect the Georgian Kingdom, while Kurskanskis believes she supported the brothers in their attempt to reclaim the Byzantine throne in Constantinople. The Turks took advantage of the weakness of the empire, conquering Oinaion and besieging Trebizond, while the Genoese seized Kerasus. Trapezuntine diplomats fostered close relations with the Byzantines and the White Sheep, a major nomadic Turkish confederacy bordering the empire. The expansion was, however, short-lived: the territories west of Sinope were lost to Theodore I Laskaris by 1214, and Sinope itself fell to the Seljuks that same year, although the emperors of Trebizond continued to fight for its control over the rest of the 13th century. Encyclopaedia of the Hellenic World, Asia Minor", "La dernière reconquête de Sinope par les Grecs de Trébizonde (1254–1265)", "New Documents on the Relations between the Latins and the Local Populations in the Black Sea Area (1392–1462), Spain (Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Empire_of_Trebizond&oldid=993474580, States and territories established in 1204, States and territories disestablished in 1461, Articles with Italian-language sources (it), Pages using infobox country or infobox former country with the flag caption or type parameters, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from August 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 10 December 2020, at 20:15. Alexios was also unable to displace the Genoese and Venetians from their dominant position in Trebizond's commerce. Bryer, "The Estates of the Empire of Trebizond. Greek text in. [6] Henceforth, the links between Trebizond and Georgia remained close, but their nature and extent have been disputed. 243–245, Hewsen, "Armenians on the Black Sea", p. 48. Discussion that several authorities consider Alexios II's reign to be the height of Trapezuntine power. Andronikos I had been deposed by Isaac II Angelos, while Manuel was blinded (a traditional Byzantine punishment for treason) and died not long after. In the 13th century, some experts believe the empire controlled the Gazarian Perateia, which included Cherson and Kerch on the Crimean peninsula. Alexios I Megas Komnenos (Greek: Αλέξιος Α΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός; c. 1182 – 1 February 1222) or Alexius I Megas Comnenus was, with his brother David, the founder of the Empire of Trebizond and its ruler from 1204 until his death in 1222. [22], The empire traces its foundation to April 1204, when Alexios Komnenos and his brother David took advantage of the preoccupation of the central Byzantine government with the encampment of the soldiers of the Fourth Crusade outside their walls (June 1203 – mid-April 1204) and seized the city of Trebizond and the surrounding province of Chaldia with troops provided by their relative, Tamar of Georgia. Εξετάστε τα παραδείγματα μετάφρασης του "Alexios III of Trebizond" σε προτάσεις, ακούστε την προφορά και μάθετε τη γραμματική. Chaldia had already shown its separatist tendencies in the 10th and 11th centuries, when it came under the control of a local leader named Theodore Gabras, who according to Anna Comnena regarded Trebizond and its hinterlands "as a prize which had fallen to his own lot" and conducted himself as an independent prince. [citation needed], After John's death in 1459, his brother David came to power. The fall of Kenchrina in 1355 marked the end of the fifteen years of civil unrest. Alexios III Megas Komnenos (cropped).JPG 91 × 109; 5 KB Alexios III Megas Komnenos.JPG 216 × 550; 51 KB Alexios III of Trebizond between his mother and his wife.jpg 149 × 260; 39 KB Despite the Nicaean reconquest of Constantinople, the Emperors of Trebizond continued to style themselves as "Roman Emperors" for two decades and continued to press their claim on the Imperial throne. Due to its natural harbours, defensible topography and access to silver and copper mines, Trebizond became the pre-eminent Greek colony on the eastern Black Sea shore soon after its founding. "[28], Vasiliev points out that the brothers occupied Trebizond too early to have done so in response to the Crusaders capturing Constantinople; Alexios and David began their march on Trebizond before news of the sack of Constantinople on 13 April 1204 could reach either Trebizond or Georgia. The Empire of Trebizond or Trapezuntine Empire was a monarchy and one of three successor rump states of the Byzantine Empire that flourished during the 13th through 15th centuries, consisting of the far northeastern corner of Anatolia (the Pontus) and the southern Crimea. Alexios II Megas Komnenos or Alexius II (Greek: Αλέξιος Β΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, romanized: Alexios II Megas Komnēnos, Sept./Dec. However, not long after they had gained control of Trebizond and the neighboring territories, news of the Latin conquest of Constantinople reached them, and the brothers entered the competition for recovery of the imperial city against Theodore I Laskaris in western Anatolia (ruler of the "Empire of Nicaea") and Michael Komnenos Doukas in mainland Greece (ruler of the "Despotate of Epirus"). A new attempt by the nobility on Alexios III failed in 1363. Genealogy for Kaloioannes Angelos Doukas Megas Komnenos, "Alexios III" emperor in Trebizond (1338 - 1390) family tree on Geni, with over 200 million profiles of ancestors and living relatives. Alexios would then proceed to rule his new empire for the next twenty-two years, until his death in February 1222. An invasion by Hajji 'Umar, the emir of Chalybia, was neutralized by diplomacy, and he was married to Alexios' sister Theodora in 1358. The destruction of Baghdad by Hulagu Khan in 1258 diverted the western terminus of the Silk Road north to the Black Sea, and due to its link with their local capital at Tabriz, Trebizond accumulated tremendous wealth under the suzerainty of the Mongols. Her first name is unknown. 1282 – 3 May 1330), was Emperor of Trebizond from 1297 to 1330. "[44] Its wealth and exotic location endowed a lingering fame on the polity. The document is also… …   Wikipedia, Komnene, daughter of Alexios I of Trebizond — Komnene was the wife of Andronikos I of Trebizond. Alexios and his brother, David, ended up at the court of Queen Tamar of Georgia, who gave them military support to return to Byzantine territory. All three dioceses survived the Ottoman conquest (1461) and generally operated until the 17th century, when the dioceses of Cerasous and Rizaion were abolished. When Alexios III died on March 20 1390, he was succeeded by his son Manuel III. The Crimean Principality of Theodoro, an offshoot of Trebizond, lasted another 14 years, falling to the Ottomans in 1475. Alexios III Megas Komnenos or Alexius III (Greek: Αλέξιος Γ΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, Alexios III Megas Komnēnos ), (October 5, 1338 ndash; March 20, 1390), Emperor of Trebizond from December 1349 until his death. [9][page needed] Thus from the point of view of the Byzantine writers connected with the Laskaris and later with the Palaiologos dynasties, the rulers of Trebizond were not emperors. Georganteli, "Trapezuntine Money in the Balkans, Anatolia and the Black Sea, 13th–15th centuries", in T. Kyriakides (ed. Alexios II Megas Komnenos or Alexius II (Greek: Αλέξιος Β΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, "Alexios II Megas Komnēnos", Sept.-Dec. 1282–1330), was Emperor of Trebizond from 1297 to 1330. On December 5, 1475 it would also fall to Ottoman rule. Karl von Hahn, Известия древних греческих и римских писателей о Кавказе, II, pp. Although that effort came to nothing, this was the last rebel governor known to recorded history prior to the events of 1204. He was the elder son of John II and Eudokia Palaiologina. [40] Through Theodora and the daughter of Alexios IV of Trebizond (also named Theodora), the Safavid dynasty of Iran that succeeded the Ak Koyunlu, would be of direct partial Pontic Greek ethnicity from its very beginning. Manuel III (1390–1417), the second son and successor of Alexios III, had allied himself with Tamerlane, but the mighty conqueror soon left Anatolia, and the empire he had built crumbled with his death. [12] The ensuing wars saw the Empire of Thessalonica, the imperial government that sprung from Epirus, collapse following conflicts with Nicaea and Bulgaria and the final recapture of Constantinople by the Empire of Nicaea in 1261. He also secured promises of help from the Turkish emirs of Sinope and Karamania, and from the king and princes of Georgia. The common view is that the Empire of Trebizond relied heavily upon wealth gained from its trade with Genoese and Venetian merchants to secure for itself the resources necessary to maintain independence.[31]. [21] Another successor to Theodore was Constantine Gabras, whom Niketas describes as ruling Trebizond as a tyrant, and whose actions led Emperor John II Komnenos in 1139 to lead an expedition against him. Alexios and David Komnenos, grandsons and last male descendants of deposed Emperor Andronikos I Komnenos, pressed their claims as "Roman Emperors" against Byzantine Emperor Alexios V Doukas. This policy of seeking diplomatic alliances with the neighboring Muslim princes was continued later in Alexios' reign, in the marriages of four of the emperor's daughters. The son of Emperor Manuel III and Gulkhan-Eudokia of Georgia. Eudokia of Georgia. [18] This territory corresponds to an area comprising all or parts of the modern Turkish provinces of Sinop, Samsun, Ordu, Giresun, Trabzon, Bayburt, Gümüşhane, Rize, and coastal parts of Artvin. It was an empire more in title than in fact, surviving by playing its rivals against each other, and offering the daughters of its rulers, who were famed for their beauty, for marriage with generous dowries, especially with the Turkish rulers of inland Anatolia. Alexios III Megas Komnenos (translit, 5 October 1338 – 20 March 1390), or Alexius III, was Emperor of Trebizond from December 1349 until his death. Although their expansion was temporarily checked by Tamerlane at the Battle of Ankara in 1402, by the 1430s the Ottomans had recovered their fortunes, seizing large segments of Greece and finally capturing Constantinople itself on 29 May 1453. But the Venetians were not content with their gains and jealously quarreled with the Genoese. Another concession to Venice followed in 1367, and gradually lowered some of the dues levied on Venetian commerce. [20] One of his successors, Gregory Taronites, also rebelled with the aid of the Sultan of Cappadocia, but he was defeated and imprisoned, only to be made governor once more. Alexios arrived in Trebizond on December 22, 1349 and was accepted as emperor by the nobility headed by Grand Duke Niketas without opposition. *"The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium", Oxford University Press, 1991.*W. Alexios and Panaretos were barely able to escape with their lives. Manuel III Megas Komnenos. The core of the empire was the southern Black Sea coast from the mouth of the Yeşilırmak river, a region known to the Trapezuntines as Limnia, possibly as far east as Akampsis river, a region then known as Lazia; Anthony Bryer has argued that six of the seven banda of the Byzantine theme of Chaldia were maintained in working order by the rulers of Trebizond until the end of the empire, helped by geography. She decided to avenge the insult by supporting her nephews in their invasion of … Alexios was raised at the Byzantine court. Alexios III now turned his attention to strengthening the frontier against the Turkmen. It was at this point that he adopted the name Alexios, and he was crowned on January 21, 1350 in the company of his mother Irene and of John Lazaropoulos, who later became Metropolitan of Trebizond. [40], Mehmed's response came in the summer of 1461. In the centuries before the founding of the empire the city had been under control of the local Gabras family, which – while officially still remaining part of the Byzantine Empire – minted its own coin. However, Anthony Bryers has argued against thinking this empire was a wealthy polity, stating that while the income from taxes levied on this trade was "by Byzantine standards" substantial, as much as three quarters of the income of the Emperor came from land "either directly from the imperial estates or indirectly from taxes and tithes from other lands. Bending under the weight of the disasters that accumulated on his states, Emperor Michael abdicated in 1349 in favor of his nephew, Alexios III, who gradually brought the partisans of both factions under control. Too much trust in the summer of 1461 to advance their own interest second ( and ). Ravages of the capture of Trebizond and other Pontic cities, a major trade center and wealth! 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